Artificial Moral Patients: Mentality, Intentionality, and Systematicity
Keywords:Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Moral Patients, Mental Patients, Moral Patients, Well-being
In this paper, we defend three claims about what it will take for an AI system to be a basic moral patient to whom we can owe duties of non-maleficence not to harm her and duties of beneficence to benefit her: (1) Moral patients are mental patients; (2) Mental patients are true intentional systems; and (3) True intentional systems are systematically flexible. We suggest that we should be particularly alert to the possibility of such systematically flexible true intentional systems developing in the areas of exploratory robots and artificial personal assistants. Finally, we argue that in light of our failure to respect the well-being of existing biological moral patients and worries about our limited resources, there are compelling moral reasons to treat artificial moral patiency as something to be avoided at least for now.
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian diets.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 116, 2016, pp. 1970-1980, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.025.
Anscombe, Gertraude E. Intention. Blackwell, 1957.
Bar-On, Yinon M., Phillips Rob, and Milo Ron. “The Biomass Distribution on Earth”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 115, no. 25, 2018, pp. 6506-6511. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711842115.
Basl, John. “Machines as Moral Patients We Shouldn’t Care About (Yet): The Interests and Welfare of Current Machines”. Philosophy and Technology, vol. 27, no. 1, 2014, pp. 79-96.
Bostrom, Nick and Yudkowsky, Eliezer. “The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence”. In Frankish, Keith and Ramsey, William M. (eds), Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 316-334.
Braithwaite, Victoria. Do Fish Feel Pain? Oxford University Press, 2010.
Brentano, Franz. “The Distinction Between Mental and Physical Phenomena”. 1874. In Franz Brentano, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, translated by A.C. Rancurello, D.B. Terrell, and L. McAlister, London Routledge, 1973 (2nd ed., intr. by Peter Simons, 1995).
Chisholm, Roderick. Perceiving: A Philosophical Study. Cornell University Press, 1957.
Degrazia, David. Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Degrazia, David. “Modal Personhood and Moral Status: A Reply to Kagan’s Proposal”. Journal of Applied Philosophy, vol. 33, no. 1, 2016, pp. 22-5. DOI: 10.1111/japp.12166
Dennett, Daniel. “Intentional Systems”. Journal of Philosophy, vol. 68, no. 4, 1971, pp. 87-106.
Dennett, Daniel. “True Believers: The Intentional Strategy and Why It Works”. In A. F. Heath (ed.), Scientific Explanation: Papers Based on Herbert Spencer Lectures Given in the University of Oxford, Clarendon Press, pp. 150-167. Reprinted in Chalmers, David (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings, Oxford University Press, pp. 556-568
Dennett, Daniel. “Real Patterns”. Journal of Philosophy, vol. 88, no. 1, 1991, pp. 27-51.
Dretske, Fred. “If You Can't Make One, You Don't Know How It Works”. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vo. 19, no. 1, 1994, pp. 468-482.
Elwood, Robert W. “Pain and Suffering in Invertebrates”. ILAR [Institute for Laboratory Animal Research] Journal, vol. 52, no. 2, 2011, pp. 175-184.
Hall, Richard. “If it Itches, Scratch!” Australasian Journal of Philosophy, vol. 86, no. 4, 2008, pp. 525–535.
Hurka, Thomas. The Best Things in Life: A Guide to What Really Matters. Oxford University Press, 2011.
IPCC 2014, Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. by Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri, and L.A. Meyer (IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014)
Keller, Simon. “Welfarism”. Philosophy Compass, vol. 4, no. 1, 2009, pp. 82-95.
Mather, Jennifer. “Cephalopod Consciousness: Behavioural Evidence”. Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 17, 2008, pp. 37-48.
McMahan, Jeff. The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life. Oxford University Press, 2002.
Nolt, John. “How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?” Ethics, Policy and Environment, vol. 14, 2011, pp. 3-10.
Oppenlander, Richard. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won't Work. Langdon Street Press, 2013.
Panksepp, Jaak. “Affective Consciousness: Core Emotional Feelings in Animals and Humans”. Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 14, 2005, pp. 30-80.
Papini, Mauricio R. Comparative Psychology: Evolution and Development of Behavior, 2nd Edition. Psychology Press, 2008.
Parfit, Derek. Reasons and Persons. Oxford University Press, 1984.
Poore, Joseph and Nemecek, Thomas. “Reducing Food’s Environmental Impacts Through Producers & Consumers”. Science, vol. 360, 2018, pp. 987-992. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0216.
Roberts, Melinda. “The Asymmetry: A solution”. Theoria, vol. 77, 2011, pp. 333-67.
Ross, W. D.. The Right and the Good. Clarendon Press, 1930.
Searchinger, Timothy Stefan Wirsenius, Tim Beringer, and Patrice Dumas. “Assessing the Efficiency of Changes in Land Use for Mitigating Climate Change”. Nature, vol. 564, 2018, pp. 249-253, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0757-z.
Shepon, Alon, Gideon Eshel, Elon Noor, and Ron Milo. “The Opportunity Cost of Animal Based Diets Exceeds All Food Losses”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science [PNAS], vol. 115(15), 2018, pp. 3804-3809 , https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1713820115.
Sidgwick, Henry. The Methods of Ethics. 7th Edition edn. Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1907.
Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. Harper Collins, 1975.
Tomasik, Brian. “How Many Wild Animals Are There?”. 7 Aug. 2019. http://reducing-suffering.org/how-many-wild-animals-are-there/. Accessed 10 January 2019.
Tye, Michael. Ten Problems of Consciousness: A Representational Theory of the Phenomenal Mind. MIT Press, 1995.
Tye, Michael. “The Problem of Simple Minds: Is there Anything it is Like to Be a Honey Bee?”. Philosophical Studies, vol. 88, 1997, pp. 289-317.
Whyte, Jamie T. “Success Semantics”. Analysis, vol. 50, no. 3, 1990, pp. 149-157.
Whyte, Jamie T. “The Normal Rewards of Success”. Analysis, vol. 51, no. 2, 1991, pp. 65-73.